My God Numa (Mother)
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More on the NIV. Viewing of. Cancel Save. It was connected to the restored temple of Iuno Regina with a portico porticus Metelli. Its location is unknown, but it may be on the Quirinal, on which an inscription reading D]iovei Victore  has been found, or on the Palatine according to the Notitia in the Liber Regionum regio X , which reads: aedes Iovis Victoris.
The cult of Iuppiter Latiaris was the most ancient known cult of the god: it was practised since very remote times near the top of the Mons Albanus on which the god was venerated as the high protector of the Latin League under the hegemony of Alba Longa. After the destruction of Alba by king Tullus Hostilius the cult was forsaken. The god manifested his discontent through the prodigy of a rain of stones: the commission sent by the Roman senate to inquire was also greeted by a rain of stones and heard a loud voice from the grove on the summit of the mount requesting the Albans perform the religious service to the god according to the rites of their country.
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In consequence of this event the Romans instituted a festival of nine days nundinae. Nonetheless a plague ensued: in the end Tullus Hostilius himself was affected and lastly killed by the god with a lightning bolt.
The feriae Latinae , or Latiar as they were known originally,  were the common festival panegyris of the so-called Priscan Latins  and of the Albans. The original cult was reinstated unchanged as is testified by some archaic features of the ritual: the exclusion of wine from the sacrifice  the offers of milk and cheese and the ritual use of rocking among the games.
Rocking is one of the most ancient rites mimicking ascent to Heaven and is very widespread. At the Latiar the rocking took place on a tree and the winner was of course the one who had swung the highest. This rite was said to have been instituted by the Albans to commemorate the disappearance of king Latinus , in the battle against Mezentius king of Caere : the rite symbolised a search for him both on earth and in heaven. The rocking as well as the customary drinking of milk was also considered to commemorate and ritually reinstate infancy.
In Rome a race of chariots quadrigae was held starting from the Capitol: the winner drank a liquor made with absynth. The Latiar became an important feature of Roman political life as they were feriae conceptivae , i. They could not start campaigning before its end and if any part of the games had been neglected or performed unritually the Latiar had to be wholly repeated.
The inscriptions from the imperial age record the festival back to the time of the decemvirs. The Ides the midpoint of the month, with a full moon was sacred to Jupiter, because on that day heavenly light shone day and night. The nundinae recurred every ninth day, dividing the calendar into a market cycle analogous to a week.
Market days gave rural people pagi the opportunity to sell in town and to be informed of religious and political edicts, which were posted publicly for three days. According to tradition, these festival days were instituted by the king Servius Tullius. During the Republican era , more fixed holidays on the Roman calendar were devoted to Jupiter than to any other deity. Festivals of viniculture and wine were devoted to Jupiter, since grapes were particularly susceptible to adverse weather. The rustic Vinalia altera on August 19 asked for good weather for ripening the grapes before harvest.
The Meditrinalia on October 11 marked the end of the grape harvest; the new wine was pressed , tasted and mixed with old wine  to control fermentation.
In the Fasti Amiternini , this festival is assigned to Jupiter. Later Roman sources invented a goddess Meditrina , probably to explain the name of the festival. At the Vinalia urbana on April 23, new wine was offered to Jupiter. The Regifugium "King's Flight"  on February 24 has often been discussed in connection with the Poplifugia on July 5, a day holy to Jupiter. Later Roman antiquarians misinterpreted the Regifugium as marking the expulsion of the monarchy, but the "king" of this festival may have been the priest known as the rex sacrorum who ritually enacted the waning and renewal of power associated with the New Year March 1 in the old Roman calendar.
The Poplifugia "Routing of Armies"  , a day sacred to Jupiter, may similarly mark the second half of the year; before the Julian calendar reform , the months were named numerically, Quintilis the fifth month to December the tenth month. There were two festivals called epulum Iovis "Feast of Jove". One was held on September 13, the anniversary of the foundation of Jupiter's Capitoline temple. The other and probably older festival was part of the Plebeian Games Ludi Plebei , and was held on November The most ancient Roman games followed after one day considered a dies ater , or "black day", i.
The games of September were named Ludi Magni ; originally they were not held every year, but later became the annual Ludi Romani  and were held in the Circus Maximus after a procession from the Capitol. The games were attributed to Tarquinius Priscus,  and linked to the cult of Jupiter on the Capitol.
Their association with the cult of Jupiter is attested by Cicero. The feriae of December 23 were devoted to a major ceremony in honour of Acca Larentia or Larentina , in which some of the highest religious authorities participated probably including the Flamen Quirinalis and the pontiffs. The Fasti Praenestini marks the day as feriae Iovis , as does Macrobius. Wissowa denies their association, since Jupiter and his flamen would not be involved with the underworld or the deities of death or be present at a funeral rite held at a gravesite.
Jove  is a less common English formation based on Iov- , the stem of oblique cases of the Latin name. The terms are similar in etymology and semantics dies , "daylight" and Dius , "daytime sky" , but differ linguistically. Wissowa considers the epithet Dianus noteworthy. The Roman practice of swearing by Jove to witness an oath in law courts  is the origin of the expression "by Jove! The name of the god was also adopted as the name of the planet Jupiter ; the adjective " jovial " originally described those born under the planet of Jupiter  reputed to be jolly, optimistic, and buoyant in temperament.
Jove was the original namesake of Latin forms of the weekday now known in English as Thursday  originally called Iovis Dies in Latin. The epithets of a Roman god indicate his theological qualities. The study of these epithets must consider their origins the historical context of an epithet's source.
Jupiter's most ancient attested forms of cult belong to the State cult: these include the mount cult see section above note n. In Rome this cult entailed the existence of particular sanctuaries the most important of which were located on Mons Capitolinus earlier Tarpeius. The mount had two tops that were both destined to the discharge of acts of cult related to Jupiter. The northern and higher top was the arx and on it was located the observation place of the augurs auguraculum and to it headed the monthly procession of the sacra Idulia.
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The god here had no image and was represented by the sacred flintstone silex. Another most ancient epithet is Lucetius : although the Ancients, followed by some modern scholars such as Wissowa,  interpreted it as referring to sunlight, the carmen Saliare shows that it refers to lightning. A group of epithets has been interpreted by Wissowa and his followers as a reflection of the agricultural or warring nature of the god, some of which are also in the list of eleven preserved by Augustine.
Rumach Etruscan for Roman. However many scholars have argued that the name of Rome, Ruma , meant in fact woman's breast. Rumina instead of Ruminus, might be nothing else than Iuppiter : " Iuppiter omnipotens regum rerumque deumque Progenitor genetrixque deum The epithet Dapalis is on the other hand connected to a rite described by Cato and mentioned by Festus. The language suggests another attitude: Jupiter is invited to a banquet which is supposedly abundant and magnificent. The god is honoured as summus.
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The peasant may hope he shall receive a benefit, but he does not say it. This interpretation finds support in the analogous urban ceremony of the epulum Iovis , from which the god derives the epithet of Epulo and which was a magnificent feast accompanied by flutes. Iuppiter Stator was first attributed by tradition to Romulus , who had prayed the god for his almighty help at a difficult time the battle with the Sabines of king Titus Tatius.
The same feature can be detected also in the certainly historical record of the battle of the third Samnite War in BC, in which consul Marcus Atilius Regulus vowed a temple to Iuppiter Stator if "Jupiter will stop the rout of the Roman army and if afterwards the Samnite legions shall be victouriously massacred It looked as if the gods themselves had taken side with Romans, so much easily did the Roman arms succeed in prevailing The religious meaning of the vow is in both cases an appeal to the supreme god by a Roman chief at a time of need for divine help from the supreme god, albeit for different reasons: Fabius had remained the only political and military responsible of the Roman State after the devotio of P.
Decius Mus, Papirius had to face an enemy who had acted with impious rites and vows, i. More recently Dario Sabbatucci has given a different interpretation of the meaning of Stator within the frame of his structuralistic and dialectic vision of Roman calendar, identifying oppositions, tensions and equilibria: January is the month of Janus , at the beginning of the year, in the uncertain time of winter the most ancient calendar had only ten months, from March to December.