Taboo Memories, Diasporic Voices (Next Wave: New Directions in Womens Studies)
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How many girls remember her professional credentials and achievements? The presidential campaign stimulated discussion of other often-ignored gender-related topics. Despite some progress, sexual harassment and sexual assault, including rape, remain widespread in the workplace and on college campuses cf.
Stanford case , The Hunting Ground. Yet there has been enormous pressure on women—and institutions—to remain silent. Hearing these denials, several women, some well-known, came forth with convincing claims that Trump had groped them or in other ways engaged in inappropriate, non-consensual sexual behavior. Trump responded by denying the charges, insulting the accusers, and threatening lawsuits against the claimants and news media organizations that published the reports.
In a normal U. Instead, accusers experienced a backlash not only from Trump but from some media organizations and Trump supporters, illustrating why women are reluctant to come forth or press sexual charges, especially against powerful men see the Anita Hill-Clarence Thomas case. Clearly, we need more public conversations about what constitutes appropriate and consensual sexually related behavior.
The presidential campaign revealed that sexism is alive and well, though not always recognized , explicit, or acknowledged even when obvious see article by Lynn Sherr. The media, both before and after the election, generally underplayed the impact of sexism despite research showing that sexist attitudes, not political party, were more likely to predict voters preference for Donald Trump over Hillary Clinton. The campaign also reflected a persistent double standard.
As a researcher and someone who had many conversations with voters during this election, I was shocked by the intensity and level of animosity directed at Hillary Clinton. It was palpable, and it went far beyond a normal critique of a normal candidate.
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Patriarchy was being threatened, and many, though not all, voters found that profoundly disturbing even though they did not necessarily recognize it or admit it. Beyond that, there is a long tradition of blaming women for personal and societal disasters—for convincing Adam to eat the forbidden fruit, for the breakup of joint family households in places like India. Hillary Clinton and her campaign and coalition symbolized and embraced the major transformations—indeed, upheavals—that have occurred in the United States since the s.
It is not just feminism and a new definition of masculinity that rejects the old baboon male-dominance tough-guy model, although that is one change. Bernie Sanders attracted an enormous, enthusiastic following and came close to winning the Democratic presidential primary.
Introducing Women’s Studies
And, not surprisingly, Sanders appealed largely to Euro-American demographic groups rather than to the broader spectrum of twenty-first century voters. In short, the election and the candidacy of Hillary Rodham Clinton symbolized more than half a century of enormous change—and a choice between continuing that change or selecting a candidate who symbolized what was traditional, familiar, and, to many, more comfortable. Whether the transformations of the past fifty years will be reversed remains to be seen. For national legislative bodies, U. The U. Yet the U.
Are you surprised by these data or by some of the countries that rank higher than the United States? What do you think are some of the reasons the US lags behind so many other countries? Center for American Women and Politics. Pew Research Institute U. United Nations, UN Women.
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Contemporary anthropology now recognizes the crucial role played by gender in human society. Anthropologists in the post era have focused on exploring fluidity within and beyond sexuality, incorporating a gendered lens in all anthropological research, and applying feminist science frameworks, discourse-narrative analyses, political theory, critical studies of race, and queer theory to better understand and theorize gendered dynamics and power.
We next discuss some of those trends. In the long history of human sexual relationships, we see that most involve people from different biological sexes, but some societies recognize and even celebrate partnerships between members of the same biological sex. Heteronormativity is a term coined by French philosopher Michel Foucault to refer to the often-unnoticed system of rights and privileges that accompany normative sexual choices and family formation.
If she married him, she would be continuing to follow societal expectations related to gender and sexuality and would be agreeing to state involvement in her love life as she formalizes her relationship. Despite pervasive messages reinforcing heteronormative social relations, people find other ways to satisfy their sexual desires and organize their families.
Increasingly, people are choosing partners who attract them—perhaps female, perhaps male, and perhaps someone with ambiguous physical sexual characteristics. Labels have changed rapidly in the United States during the twenty-first century as a wider range of sexual orientations has been openly acknowledged, accompanied by a shift in our binary view of sexuality.
Rather than thinking of individuals as either heterosexual OR homosexual, scholars and activists now recognize a spectrum of sexual orientations. Given the U.
Transgender , meanwhile, is a category for people who transition from one sex to another, male to female or female to male, using a number of methods. This label, too, has undergone a profound shift in usage, and the high-profile transition by Caitlyn Jenner in the mids has further shifted how people think about those who identify as transgender. By , an estimated 8. Like the U. Some people highlight their other identities, as Minnesotans, for example, or their ethnicity, religion, profession, or hobby—whatever they consider central and important in their lives. Some scholars argue that heteronormativity allows people who self-identify as heterosexual the luxury of not being defined by their sexual orientation.
They suggest that those who identify with the sex and gender they were assigned at birth be referred to as cisgender. Though people are urging adoption of sexual identity labels, not everyone is embracing the move to self-identify in a specific category. Thus, a man who is attracted to both men and women might self-identify as bisexual and join activist communities while another might prefer not to be incorporated into any sexual-preference-based politics. Some people prefer to eliminate acronyms altogether, instead embracing terms such as genderfluid and genderqueer that recognize a spectrum instead of a static identity.
This freedom to self-identify or avoid categories altogether is important. Most of all, these shifts and debates demonstrate that, like the terms themselves, LGBTQ communities in the United States are diverse and dynamic with often-changing priorities and makeup. In the last two decades, attitudes toward LGBTQ—particularly lesbian, gay and bisexual—people have changed dramatically.
The most sweeping change is the extension of marriage rights to lesbian, gay, and bisexual people. The first state to extend marriage rights was Massachusetts in By , more than half of U. Americans said they believed same-sex couples should have the right to marry, and on June 26, , in Obergefell v. Hodges , the U. While many factors have influenced the shift in attitudes, sociologists and anthropologists have identified increased awareness of and exposure to LGBTQ people through the media and personal interactions as playing key roles.
Legalization of same-sex marriage also helped normalize same-sex parenting. Sarah, whose three young children—including a set of twins—are mothered by Sarah and her partner, was active in campaigns for marriage equality in Minnesota and ecstatic when the campaign succeeded in see Text Box 4. However, legalization of same-sex marriage has not been welcomed everywhere in the United States. Later, she shifted her focus to the rhetoric of gender, masculinity, and cisgender sexuality used by the church and its pastor.
Interestingly, activists and gender studies scholars express concern over incorporating marriage—a heteronormative institution some consider oppressive—into queer spaces not previously governed by state authority. These concerns may be overshadowed by a desire for normative lives and legal protections, but as sociologist Tamara Metz and others have argued, legally intertwining passion, romance, sexual intimacy, and economic rights and responsibilities is not necessarily a move in the right direction.
While U. Sexual orientation and gender identity are not federally protected statuses. Thus, in 32 states as of , employers can legally refuse to hire and can fire someone simply for being LGBTQ. LGBTQ people can be legally denied housing and other important resources heterosexual people take for granted. LGBTQ youth made up 40 percent of homeless young people in the United States in and are often thrust into homelessness by family rejection.
See Activity 4: Bathroom Transgression. In , the Minnesota state legislature voted on whether to approve same-sex marriage. In the process, she wrote the following letter. This is an open letter to you in support of the marriage equality bill. I may not be your constituent, and you may already know how you are planning to vote, but I ask you to read this letter with an open mind and heart nonetheless.
I want same-sex marriage for the same reasons as many others. My partner Abby and I met in the first days of and have created a loving home together with our three kids and two cats. Abby and I both wear wedding bands.
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We designed them prior to our ceremony and spent more time on that decision than we did on the flowers, dresses, and music combined. Our son is now three and a half and, like other kids his age, he asks about everything. All the time. When I get him dressed, change his diaper please let him be potty-trained soon , or wipe his nose, he sees my ring. And he always asks:. It shows that we love each other. And then I get a wedding band? And then he goes about his day.
A THOUSAND AND ONE VOICES: RE-READING SCHEHERAZADE IN CONTEMPORARY ARAB-AMERICAN FICTION
This conversation may seem silly and harmless to you, but read it again. Look at how many times the issue of marriage comes up. He looks at our pictures and sees that his parents made a commitment to each other because of love. I am grateful that he is blissfully unaware right now. Imagine having the conversation with your children.