The Principles of Existence & Beyond
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Secondly, creatures which serve as effects through which we postulate God as the ultimate cause do not adequately represent the perfection which is in God. In a sense, one can say that there is a vast gulf between the powers of human knowledge and God's existence. This disparity is demonstrated in the incorporeality and immateriality of God as against the corporeal and material nature of human beings. At first, it sounds as if there is nothing human beings can know about God.
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This has been the basis of agnosticism. Though, what is supremely knowable in itself may not be knowable to a particular intellect such as human beings. For instance, God who is completely self-comprehensive is only partially comprehensible to human beings. It does not follow that God cannot be known at all, but that God exceeds every kind of knowledge, which means that God is not comprehended S.
Human beings only know God partially because the knowledge of God's existence is beyond their grasp; thus, it is impossible that created human beings should comprehend God S. The difficulty was a concern for generations of neo-Platonists that nothing should be predicated of the supremely divine which might not, in any way, circumscribe the divine existence. This suggests that God is placed even beyond being, or at least 'declaring that to say that God is, is not to say of God anything which tells us what God is' Evans In other words, the medieval period of philosophy created a legacy of sensitivity about predicating anything concerning God's existence.
One of the solutions to this problem is to avoid making any affirmative predications about God. Such a stance is due to a belief in the ultimate inaccessibility of God to human knowing Evans Pseudo-Dionysius and via negativa. The concept via negativa was officially introduced to the philosophy of religion in the late 5th century by an anonymous author who wrote under the name Dionysius the Areopagite, also called Pseudo-Dionysius.
He called himself Dionysius and claimed to be a disciple of St. Paul, but historians agree that his claim is false as he might also have been a Syrian contemporary of Boethius, whose writings must be dated around the year A. Some authors argue that he claimed to be Dionysius, a disciple of Paul, probably to give authority to his philosophical and theological input into the study of the existence of God Pieper However, attention must be given to the inroads he made by postulating via negativa as one of the ways of predicating God's existence.
Pseudo-Dionysius , commenting in the Divine Names on God's incomprehensibility, asserts that:. No words can describe it, and it is of a kind that neither intelligence nor speech can lay hold of it, nor can it at all be contemplated since it surpasses everything and is wholly beyond our capacity to know it.
For this reason, Pseudo-Dionysius a holds that the incomprehensibility of God is beyond every assertion and denial. But he avers that denial statements are the closest human intellect can come towards God. Pseudo-Dionysius suggests that:. We should posit and ascribe to the Supreme Being all the affirmations we make in regard to beings, and, more appropriately, we should negate all these affirmations, since the Supreme Being surpasses all being.
However, he warns that we should not mistake the negations simply as opposites of the affirmations because the cause is prior and beyond every denial and assertion PseudoDionysius b. Pseudo-Dionysius is aware that human beings unavoidably develop anthropomorphic conceptions of God, and for this reason he undertakes to remove from God all that can be predicated of creatures. This seemingly ingrained character in human beings is called anthropomorphism. The only positive aspect of human knowledge about God is that we do not know what God is like because God's existence exceeds human comprehension Pieper ; Stumpf The negative way allows one to predicate with certainty something about God, though one's predication is negative.
However, an excessive application of via negativa may lead to denial of God's existence. Or worse still, it may lead one to deny that the human being can at least establish the existence of God through effects, even though it cannot pry into what God is. It is essential to note that Pseudo-Dionysius holds that God's essence is unknowable even through the negative way. Referring to God's existence, he Pseudo-Dionysius says that:. There is no speaking of it, no name, no knowledge of it. We make assertions and denials of what is next to it, but never of it, for He is both beyond every assertion and denial.
Anselm's ontological argument. Anselm was born in Aosta in northern Italy.
The archbishop of Canterbury is mainly remembered for his proof of God's existence in the Proslogion. Unsatisfied with the arguments in the Monologion, he searched for a single argument that would prove that God really exists, that God is the supreme good that needs no other and whom all things need for their existence and well-being Anselm Ever since the medieval epoch there have been debates about what human beings can know about God's existence, bearing in mind the fact that what an agent can know is based on the agent's mode of being.
Thus, it is logical to think that the human beings cannot rationally know God's existence expect through experience of sensible realities. But Anselm seemed to ignore this epistemological position. Ontological argument. In this argument, Anselm claims to write from the vantage point of one who raises his mind in contemplation to God, one who searches for the intellectual understanding of what one believes.
Anselm thinks that human beings can rationally without the aid of created reality know the existence of God. Anselm thus invites one to enter into the chamber of one's soul in order to find God. Following this invitation is the famous argument whose exponents claim proceeds from faith. It reads:. We believe that 'You' 8 are something than which nothing greater can be thought. Neither can it be that a thing of such a nature does not exist [ Anselm Anselm insists that 'that than which nothing greater can be thought' exists necessarily in a manner that the fool even understands what he hears - that God is that than which nothing greater can be conceived, and what he understands is in his mind, even if he does not understand that it actually exists.
Anselm postulates that the reality under discussion is an entity that exists not only in the mind, but also in actuality. He uses a painter and his planned art work as an analogy to one who denies the simultaneous existence of God both in the mind and in reality. He argues that the planned work exists in the mind of the artist and in reality though the artist does not know that the art exists actually as well till he executes the plan. Anselm supposes that '"that than which a greater" cannot be thought cannot exist in the mind alone since it can be thought to exist in reality also, which is greater'.
It is notable to identify that, so far, Anselm's argument starts from concept of God's existence to an actual correspondence in reality.
F. H. Bradley: Logic
In other words, his proof starts from an idea and necessarily extends to reality Stumpf He also thinks that it is impossible and self-contradictory to think that the idea in question does not necessarily exist both as an idea and in reality Anselm He is so certain of this proposition in a way that this being in question truly exists in a manner that it cannot even be thought not to exist.
Gaunilo was the first to identify the flaws in the Proslogion.
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In responding on behalf of the fool, Gaunilo starts with Anselm's assumption that the fool understands what he hears. Gaunilo poses the following question:. Could I not say that all kinds of unreal things, not existing in themselves in any way at all, are equally in the mind since, if anyone speaks about them, I understand whatever is said. When this object had been spoken of and heard, it could not be thought not to exist in the same way in which God cannot be thought not to exist.
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Gaunilo asks why Anselm puts forward this whole argument against anyone denying or doubting the existence of God if God's existence is undeniable Anselm Taking a cue from Augustine, Gaunilo suggests that the example of the painter having the picture he is about to make already in his mind does not support the Proslogion argument.
This is because the picture, before it is actually made, is only an art of the painter which exists in the painter's understanding Anselm To drive home his objection, Gaunilo posits a similar argument to the Proslogion, which any person that supports the validity of the latter argument may find hard to deny. Gaunilo's parallel argument reads as follows: there is a perfect island in an ocean - it is a nonexisting reality which can be imagined in the mind.
The perfect island has priceless pearls in abundance. Rumour has it that its richness surpasses the other lands which human beings inhabit. What is said of the perfect island is easily understood. But one cannot go on to say: you cannot doubt that this island, that is more excellent than all other lands, truly exists somewhere in reality than you can doubt that it is in your mind.
This is because it is more excellent to exist not only as an idea alone but also in reality. Thus, this island exists in reality as well as in the mind if the Proslogion argument is valid Anselm Anselm' s response to Gaunilo. Anselm responds to Gaunilo's objections by contending that, if the reality in question can be thought of, it necessarily exists. For 'that than which a greater cannot be thought' cannot be thought save as being without a beginning.
But whatever can be thought as existing and does not actually exist cannot be thought as not having a beginning of its existence.
Consequently, 'that than which a greater cannot be thought' cannot be thought as existing and yet not actually exist Anselm If anyone says that he thinks that this being does not exist, 'I reply that, when he thinks of this, either he thinks of something than which a greater cannot be thought, or he does not think at all' Anselm We cannot use disjunctive addition to add in an arbitrary fashion another disjunct that is not a real possibility. In the same way, to say that something is colored is associated with a list of possibilities from which we select the actual color.
To produce the disjunctive judgment that lists the varieties of color is to assign to the object categorically the property of being some kind of color, even if we do not know which color it is. Chapter V examines logical principles. Bradley dismisses the Law of Identity as an empty tautology. The ideas of self and other are different ideas, but no one would say that it is a contradiction to assert the existence of the self and other things as well.
The challenge to the principle of contradiction comes, only if the different ideas combined are taken to be discrepant or contrary, since the contrary of a given proposition entails its contradictory. Bradley offers a compromise according to which ideas that appear to be contrary are reconciled when harmonized within a wider reality.
For example, opposite properties can be assigned to the same thing at different times. Indeed, if Bradley gets his way, the ultimate subject will always be reality.
Principles of Natural Theology 4
Excluded middle uses the variety of disjunction in which the number of disjuncts is exactly two. When the second disjunct is constructed as the negation of the first, there can be no other choice. Judgments founded on intension refer to the connection of attributes and meanings, and ignore the denotation of objects. Universal judgments based on meanings are those Kant considers strictly universal, because they do not permit even the possibility of exceptions. Not all universal judgments are of this type, and singular judgments never are.